See More on Facebook

Curiosity

Unified dictionary aims to reduce 70-year language gap between two Koreas

As the two Koreas strive to improve relations, a stalled project to bridge the linguistic gap between them could be revived.


Written by

Updated: August 6, 2018

While Korean is the official language of the two Koreas, the forms of the language spoken by South and North Koreans have drifted apart as a result of the differing cultures and social systems of the two sides.

The reconciliatory atmosphere initiated by the April 27 inter-Korean summit has brought a joint project to publish a unified dictionary back into the spotlight.

Language differences

In February 2005, the two Koreas established the Joint Committee of South and North Korea for the Compilation of Gyeoremal-keunsajeon — a unified and unabridged Korean dictionary — to minimize confusion and lay the foundation of the language if reunification occurs. The South’s state-run Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund provides annual funding of about 3 billion won ($2.65 million).

Due to turbulent relations and high political tension, however, meetings were suspended several times and the project was brought to a halt in 2016, following provocative nuclear missile tests and the closing of the Kaesong industrial park.

“The differences in the language come largely from vocabularies that have developed to reflect the lifestyles of the two Koreas,” Han Yong-un, the chief of the compilation department at South Korea’s committee, told The Korea Herald.

Joint projects for unified dictionaries are not rare for countries that have experienced division. In 2016, China and Taiwan published a comprehensive dictionary that contains 101,732 entries. Efforts for linguistic unity were also made when East and West Germany reunified in 1990.

The inter-Korean committee, which consists of lexicographers and linguists from the two sides, has held 25 meetings since the project kicked off, to select about 330,000 entries for the Gyeoremal-keunsajeon.

According to Han, only about 6 words out of 10 are mutually understood by people in the two Koreas. With a greater discrepancy in technical terms, it is not easy, for example, for doctors or architects from the South and North to work together, Han said.

Language regarding banks, taxes and other areas determined by the political system in place also presents barriers.

“Once, we (the committee members) were deciding on the different categories of taxes to include in the dictionary. But because the tax system does not exist in North Korea, their lexicographers asked us, ‘What do you live with after paying off so much tax to the country?’”

In the joint dictionary, they agreed to take out detailed categories of taxes.

North Koreans and South Koreans would perceive the word “eunhaeng”– bank in Korean — differently because while bank transactions occur daily for all individuals in the South, they only occur between groups or entities in the North, Han said.

Along with the different vocabularies used, linguistic differences also come from political management.

In the South Korean dictionary, the term “dongmu,” is defined as “colleague, close acquaintance,” but in the North Korean dictionary, it is stated as “a revolutionary colleague who fights together under the same ideology.”

Bridging the language gap is not power game

Up to this year, the committee has been selecting 210,000 entries used widely in both or either South or North Korea’s existing dictionaries: the Standard Korean Language Dictionary, compiled by the South’s National Institute of Korean Language in 1999 and Joseonmal Daesajeon compiled by the North’s Academy of Social Sciences.

The rest of the words, about 70,000, were newly collected from written documents and regional language surveys conducted by the lexicographers.

In addition to choosing the entries and providing unified definitions, the committee members have to decide on the unified orthography, or the microstructure of the language.

While vocabularies differ, it is the users that will decide the standard forms of the terms, Han explained. For example, if the word “goose” in South Korea is called “geowi” and in the North “gyesani,” both terms will be included in the dictionary.

“Language evolves and vocabularies also compete with another. In time, the word that more people use will become the standard, and the less used ones may co-exist or disappear,” Han said.

As for the orthography of the Korean language, it is the role of the lexicographers from the two Koreas to decide. The orthographic differences include word spacing and varying pronunciations of initial syllables.

But reaching agreement in unified language rules does not mean trading a rule of South Korea with another of the North, Han said.

“When we reported the results of our meetings, people would talk about how many more South Korean rules were accepted compared to the North Korean rules,” Han said. “It is not a power game. We strictly follow linguistic rules and development of the language to see what would be the most efficient forms to transfer to later generations.”

But considering public sentiment toward unfamiliarity, it would take a long time for such differences to be settled, Han added.

Han explained that the project was more than just creating a dictionary with a list of words used in the two states — it provided the opportunity to conduct a comprehensive check on the Korean language as well.

Stability for completion of the dictionary

While the series of meetings with the North is leading progress in talks for industrial cooperation, nongovernmental exchanges have yet to come.

In line with the thawing atmosphere, South Korea’s joint compilation committee wishes for its project to be resumed.

“We have not yet heard from the North to restart the project. We sent a request for a working-level consultation via fax mail, and are waiting for the response,” said Kim Hak-mook, the committee’s secretary-general.

The South Korean committee is working to extend its project operating period for another five years, as it is currently set to end in April 2019.

“While the dictionary-making business in the North is taken by its regime, it has mostly been done by private publishers in the South, so here it is also a temporary project with an end date,” Kim said.

The publication of the final version of the dictionary is expected take about six more years as it has to go through proofreading and copy editing.

As the governments of the South and North have agreed to set up a joint liaison office inside Kaesong industrial park located to the north of the border in August, Kim hoped the committee would be stationed at the liaison office to continue its work without interference.



Enjoyed this story? Share it.


The Korea Herald
About the Author: The Korea Herald is the nation’s largest English-language daily and the country’s sole member of the Asia News Network.

Eastern Briefings

All you need to know about Asia


Our Eastern Briefings Newsletter presents curated stories from 22 Asian newspapers from South, Southeast and Northeast Asia.

Sign up and stay updated with the latest news.



By providing us with your email address, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

View Today's Newsletter Here

Curiosity

Disaster training targets mosquitoes with dengue virus

Japan is preparing for every scenario ahead of Tokyo 2020. As part of preparations for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, disaster training was conducted at the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden in Tokyo on Monday in a scenario where the dengue virus had been detected in mosquitoes. Monday was the usual weekly closing day of Shinjuku Gyoen, and about 160 people, including staff from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, participated in the training. During the exercise, they used a method called “human decoy,” in which a person stands in place for eight minutes to attract mosquitoes. They then sprayed insecticide around mosquito concentration points to confirm whether insects would be eliminated. Dengue causes fever, headache and joint pain three to seven days after being bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus. In rare cases, the disease is severe


By The Japan News
September 3, 2019

Curiosity

India successfully places probe in moon’s orbit

Landing attempt will take place on September 7. In a significant step for India’s moon mission, Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft was successfully placed in the moon’s orbit on Tuesday in a nerve-wracking manoeuvre, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said. According to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) was completed successfully at 9.02 am as planned using the onboard propulsion system. All the systems of Chandrayaan-2 are healthy. “The duration of manoeuvre was 1,738 seconds. With this, Chandrayaan-2 was successfully inserted into a lunar orbit. The orbit achieved is 114km X 18,072km,” the ISRO said. The 3,850-kg Chandrayaan-2, a three-module spacecraft comprising an orbiter, Lander Vikram and rover, which was launched on July 22, will make a soft-land on the moon on September 7. The process of setting down Chandrayaan 2 on the Moon i


By The Statesman
August 21, 2019

Curiosity

Here’s how you can protect yourself from dengue

With the possibility of an outbreak, it’s important to understand the disease and recognise its symptoms. The WHO on Monday warned that the Kathmandu Valley might be in for a possible dengue outbreak. According to news published in the Post, in the fiscal year 2018-2019, more than 3,425 people had been infected with the dengue virus—the highest number of infections in 15 years. The mosquito-borne viral disease is transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The same mosquitoes also transmit the chikungunya virus, yellow fever, and Zika virus, according to the WHO. With the lurking threat of the possibility of the disease’s outbreak in


By The Kathmandu Post
August 16, 2019

Curiosity

Plastic straws are slowly being replaced in Kathmandu’s restaurants

Following global concern, a few restaurants in Kathmandu are consciously limiting their use of plastic straws by switching to sustainable alternatives. Twenty-one-year-old Asma Pun enjoys meeting her friends for a drink in cafes. And as much as she prefers to slurp her drinks with a straw, environment-conscious Pun says she has always been hesitant to use plastic ones. That was why, in July last year, when she heard of the global pledge to ban the use of plastic straws, Pun too resolved to use bamboo and copper straws for her daily use. But she had difficulty keeping


By The Kathmandu Post
August 2, 2019

Curiosity

Japanese Govt service to provide businesses with quake damage estimates

The paid service will come into effect after major quakes. The government has decided to roll out a paid service that will send notifications of nationwide damage estimates to companies soon after major earthquakes in the Nankai Trough and elsewhere. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED) will use the system to estimate earthquake intensities, damage to buildings and fatalities in 250-square-meter sections nationwide. This data will be sent via email to paying businesses within 20 minutes of a quake. It is hoped that providing information on potential damage to factories and clients in situations where phones may not be working will help companies get up and running again quickly. Rapid post-disaster recovery The messages are to be sent out by the Real-time Earthquake & Disaster Informati


By The Japan News
July 18, 2019

Curiosity

Japan to subsidize fishermen’s disposal of ocean plastic

The government will pay fishermen to dispose and collect ocean plastic. The government plans to provide assistance for the collection and disposing of plastic waste in the ocean (see below) picked up by fishing vessels, according to sources. It intends to subsidize most of the cost borne by municipalities in disposing of plastic garbage that is dragged up along with fish in trawl nets, among other methods. Amid growing international concern over how to deal with ocean pollution, the government hopes to work with fishermen to accelerate a reduction in plastic waste. According to the Fisheries Agency, fishermen drag up large amounts of plastic bottles, bags and other kinds of waste along with the fish they catch when using trawl nets and other methods. They have to pay to dispose of the collected waste if they bring it back to land, so the fishermen often thr


By The Japan News
July 17, 2019